Talking about the life of lithium battery of new energy vehicle and the technical bottleneck

May 04, 2021

With the rapid spread of new energy vehicles, major auto manufacturers have also seen the development prospects of electric vehicles. Many manufacturers have begun to try to introduce electric vehicles. However, as far as the current situation is concerned, there are still some problems to be solved in electric vehicles. For example, the charging is slow, the cruising range is short, etc., but among these problems, there are important problems that are generally easily overlooked by consumers - the life of electric vehicle batteries. However, there seems to be a solution to this problem.

"Salt bath" way to extend life

The Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) published a research report yesterday saying that the agency scientists have invented a simpler method to extend the life of rechargeable lithium batteries, which the agency named the "salt bath."

It is reported that the change method was discovered by CSIRO in cooperation with the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology and the Queensland University of Technology. According to CSIRO researchers, the material they use is an ionic liquid. This ionic liquid, also known as a normal temperature molten salt, is a transparent, colorless, odorless, and flame retardant unique liquid that can be applied to the electrode surface. A protective film is formed to keep the battery stable during use. The process and principle of processing the battery is to immerse the lithium metal electrode in the mixed electrolyte containing the ionic liquid and the lithium salt before the battery is assembled. After this treatment, the battery life can be prolonged, and the battery life can be extended. Time is extended, and performance and security can be enhanced.

Lithium battery life

At this stage, the batteries of electric vehicles that various manufacturers try to develop are basically batteries (mainly lithium-ion batteries) and fuel cells. The fuel cell maintenance costs and maintenance costs are too high (the fuel cell maintenance cost is about three to four of the battery). It is not suitable for the development of electric vehicles at this stage. So for the time being, don't mention it, just say the lithium battery that is commonly used now.

The life of lithium-ion batteries on ordinary electronic products is about 5 to 20 years, with an average of 8 years. At the current state of the art, lithium-ion batteries have a service life of only about 3-5 years on electric vehicles. When the battery capacity on the electric vehicle is reduced to less than 80% of the initial capacity, the driving range of the electric vehicle will be significantly reduced. When the battery capacity is reduced to less than 70%, the battery must be replaced. For many of today's pure electric vehicles, the cost of the battery is about 40% of the total cost of the car. That is to say, replacing the battery is equivalent to changing the car by half.

The reason why the battery life of electric vehicles is short is due to the influence of working environment and large-scale charging and discharging.

In terms of working environment, the operation of electric vehicle batteries in high temperature or low temperature will have an impact on the life of lithium batteries. This effect is generally uncontrollable. After all, the external environment of driving is less selective.

In terms of charging and discharging, the current charging mode of electric vehicles is basically two types - household charging piles and charging piles for quick charging. For example, Tesla, the world's best electric electric car, is super-charged. It can charge half of the car in 20 minutes. The charging peak can reach the charging speed of more than 500 kilometers per hour. The charging power is the highest. There are 120 kilowatts.

This kind of charging has a significant impact on the life of the battery. According to foreign statistics, Tesla's battery decay efficiency is about 1% of the 10,000-kilometer recession. If the long-term use of "fast charge" declines, the efficiency will be faster, and Most electric vehicle manufacturers, including Tesla, are not covered by the warranty milestones, so the impact of battery life on the car is enough to attract users' attention.

future development

In the development of new energy vehicles, high-end energy sources such as fuel cells will definitely be a trend in the future, but lithium-ion batteries are indeed the most suitable choice in the current technology. Although the problem of slow charging and short battery life is urgently needed to be solved, the battery decline cannot be ignored, even more important than the former two, because it can directly affect the life of the car. If the research results of CSIRO can be applied to the actual situation, then there is no small driving force for the development of lithium battery vehicles.

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